How to prevent gum diseases

Inflammation of the gums is a general concept that implies both superficial and deep inflammatory processes.
Everyone faces this problem in one way or another, and in the absence of due attention to the state of the oral cavity, inflammation can lead to serious consequences up to the loss of healthy teeth. It is important to recognize in time not only the inflammation that has begun, but also to assess the depth of its spread, get qualified help from a dentist and prevent complications.


The gums can become inflamed for various reasons.
The most common of these is improper, irregular oral hygiene.
The accumulation of plaque and the active reproduction of pathogenic flora as a result of this leads to inflammatory reactions.
Refusal to use rinses and dental fndal, brush with inappropriate bristles – all this leads to the fact that food particles remain in the interdental spaces, which are a nutrient medium for microorganisms.

The accumulation of soft plaque in the future leads to the formation of hard dental plaque – tartar.
It promotes the reproduction of bacteria, and the sharp edges of the formations injure soft tissues, provoking reactive inflammation.


  • general weakening of the body’s defenses: with systemic diseases, operations and infections;
  • reduction of local defenses as a result of injury: damage may be associated with the use of a brush with stiff bristles, the presence of orthopedic and orthodontic structures, sharp edges of fillings and crowns of teeth;
  • weakening of tissues as a result of chemical or thermal burns;
  • lack of vitamins D and group B, as well as other micronutrients: this can be associated with both a poor diet and with violations of the process of absorption of vitamins and trace elements from food in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • endocrine pathologies: diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction;
  • bad habits: smoking, drinking alcohol;
  • taking certain drugs: oral contraceptives, means for normalizing blood pressure, antidepressants, antibiotics, etc.

If the gums are inflamed, it is important to find out the causes of the condition.
Turning to the dentist, tell him about the diseases you know, the interventions and injuries received.
Eliminating the cause will help prevent the recurrence of the disease in the future.


There are two types of inflammatory processes in the gums – gingivitis and periodontitis.
Gingivitis is a superficial inflammation of the gums, in which the dentingival joint is not involved in the pathological process.
Usually we are talking about inflammation of the papillae of the gums between the teeth, while the disease is not dangerous for the teeth themselves: it does not provoke their mobility.
Gingivitis is classified as follows:

  • desquamative: characterized by pronounced redness and noticeable peeling of the upper layer of the tissues of the inflamed gums.
  • hypertrophic: this species is characterized by an increase in the size of the dingival papillae, their color can vary from red to bluish.
    The severity is determined by the volume of growth of the gums – it can cover more than half the height of the crowns of the teeth.
    Often found in adolescents, pregnant women;
  • atrophic: unlike hypertrophic, this type of gingivitis is characterized by a decrease in the volume of gum tissue;
  • ulcerative: this inflammatory process is distinguished by the presence of severe itching and the appearance of ulcers on the gums.
  • acute necrotizing: recorded in the ICD separately.
    The cause of such inflammation is a bacterial infection. The disease is accompanied by the death of the tissues of the interdental papillae.
  • acute catarrhal: this is one of the most common types of gingivitis, which is characterized by redness, swelling and bleeding of the gums.

The lack of timely assistance can lead to the transition of acute inflammation to a chronic form, as well as lead to the development of periodontitis.
Periodontitis differs from gingivitis in that deeply located tissues connecting the roots of the teeth and the bone structure are involved in the inflammatory process.
In this case, the gums can peel off from the tooth, forming a gingival pocket, where food residues and soft plaque accumulate, which aggravates the situation.
Complications of periodontitis are purulent processes and mobility of teeth with a high risk of their loss.

Both gingivitis and periodontitis can be local and generalized.
In the first case, the inflammation is limited to a certain area, in the second – covers all the teeth of the jaw.
Local limited inflammation is most often associated with trauma, general – with the action of other adverse factors.


It is easy to recognize inflammation of the gums. The following symptoms may appear:

  • redness, swelling of the gums;
  • hypersensitivity of soft tissues;
  • bleeding associated with weakening of small blood vessels;
  • characteristic loose surface of the gums;
  • bad breath.

There are also specific manifestations: with advanced periodontitis, purulent discharge appears, body temperature may rise.
With ulcerative gingivitis, ulcerations on the surface of the soft tissues are noticeable.
Atrophic gingivitis can lead to the exposure of the necks of the teeth and the appearance of hypersensitivity to cold and hot food.


The scheme of treatment of gums is developed individually, depending on the identified disease, general well-being and the severity of the pathology.
There are several methods of therapy that can be divided into local and systemic methods of exposure.


All information provided at is for INFORMATION only and is not a substitute for consultation, diagnosis or professional medical care.
If you have a health problem, contact a health care professional immediately.